Gut microbiota development driven by specific enzyme in breast milk

The term “gut microbiome” refers to trillions of microbial cells that live in community in the digestive tract. Recently, studies have revealed that this community of bacteria has a profound impact on human physiology, metabolism, nutrition and the immune system.

An unhealthy gut microbiota has been linked with a number of diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis.


A neonate has no gut microbiota, but development starts at birth and continues to establish itself over the first few years of life. Medical News Today previously reported that infants born by Cesarian section may lack essential gut microbiota, but that vaginal swabbing can help to make up for this.

The first exposure, and accumulation, of gut microbiota comes from the mother. Research has shown that it starts with the birthing process and continues its early development as the child feeds, benefitting particularly as the mother breastfeeds.

Glycoproteins in breast milk nourish the gut microbiome

Now, scientists from the University of California-Davis have revealed how breast milk contributes to the process.

While infants are nursing, their gastrointestinal tracts become enriched with specific protective microbes.

Breast milk guides the development of a newborn’s gut microbiome. It nourishes a very specific bacterial population, and this, in turn, provides nourishment and protection for the child.

In previous studies, the authors of the current research showed that the source of this nourishment is the glycoproteins that are present in milk.

These glycoproteins comprise protein as well as molecules containing multiple sugars, called oligosaccharides.

Prof. David A. Mills, PhD, who is the Shields Endowed Chair in Dairy Food Science, and colleagues had also discovered that the infant-associated subspecies of a particular bacterium, known as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, or B. infantis, produces a particular enzyme known as endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EndoBI-1).

EndoBI-1, which was identified by Prof. Mills’ team, can separate the oligosaccharides from the milk glycoproteins.

In the current study, Prof. Mills and coauthors hypothesized that these oligosaccharides were the food source for B. infantis.

The researchers have demonstrated that not only can the enzyme break down glycoproteins and release the oligosaccharides from the mother’s milk, but that it could do the same for cow’s milk.

They showed that released oligosaccharides are a substrate for the growth of B. infantis, but they also found that the oligosaccharides do not nourish adult-associated bifidobacteria.

The Oxford Dictionary defines a substrate as “the surface or material on or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment.”

Cow’s milk as a source of infant prebiotic

The authors believe the study could lead to the use of cow’s milk to provide the necessary compound as a prebiotic for infants.

The findings suggest, says Prof. Mills, that if bioactive oligosaccharides can be incorporated into infant formula, this would lead to a better product.

Prof. Mills explains that B. infantis includes many genes that are involved in breaking down glycoproteins in mother’s milk in order to release the oligosaccharides.

Mother’s milk has evolved in mammals over millions of years, he adds. This evolution has taken place alongside the development of beneficial gut microbiota that the mother’s milk has nourished and enabled to thrive.

Increasing Memory by Reducing Stress

Stress occurs in every person’s life and each and every one of us has a lot of anxieties and stress about different aspects of their lives.  When a person is stressed, then it directly has an impact on his mental performance. He cannot function or learn effectively and it also as an impact on his thinking abilities. This is where memory enhancing supplements and boosters come into existence.

When a person consumes supplements to enhance his memory and learning ability it results in increased mental recalling capacity and better work output. This decreases the stress in a person and he feels more relaxed and at peace of mind. When a person remains calm, he automatically tends to perform better in his academics or job and is able to pick up new information and remember better when at peace. His learning capacity increases manifold times and he can focus better with a sharper mind when he is not stressed.


A brain pill boosts other chemicals in the brain and help in cognitive improvement of the brain cells. They increase memory capacity of the brain and help in speeding up learning process. Brain pills give a confident feeling to the consumer helps them to keep a positive frame of mind.

These supplements are largely popular among students and other professionals who need to spend long hours studying or concentrating at their jobs to yield high performances. These focus pills help them to deliver better results due to their sharper memories and better concentration.

Therefore when a person shows good performance in his work his stress levels reduce automatically giving him a peaceful mind and contentment.  They are also consumed by people who are ageing to prevent loss of memory so that they can retain memory and attention span for a longer period.

Types of Memory Supplements

There are two major types of memory supplements nutritional supplements and cognitive enhancers. Nutritional supplements are standard nutrition based supplements vitamins, minerals and herbs while the cognitive enhancers are brain pills.

Optimind: This drug is known for release of the nerve growth. This promotes cognitive memory. You have to take a lower dosage when compared to other drugs in the same profile. This supplement not only protects against but also reverses the deterioration of neural structures as it comprises of more than 12 natural and safe nootropics ingredients.

So, start acting before it is too late and preventive measures it’s always a better way to safeguard yourself.

How senior people can benefit from these supplements?

Age related memory deterioration is normal but if it happens earlier in your age or rapidly decreases with time then it’s an indication that something needs to be done and corrected. If these things are left unchecked, then it may lead to a very serious and scary condition. To mention a few one may have Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. Hence it becomes necessary to get help at the right time and take the right steps.

Taking supplement will not only reduce the rapid deterioration but also improve your cognitive condition and brain cells.

Fitness Bible-How To Stay Fit As A Fiddle Using Your Pull-Up Bar

The pull-up bar is designed so as to engage our shoulder and back muscles along with the lower arm muscles. Daily workout using the pull-up bar results in a well-toned body with muscles at the right place. This workout involves in pulling your body up with the help of the upper body muscles that is mainly engaging your back muscle in motion. This workout is mainly aimed to achieve a better upper body physique.


Pre-Workout Exercises

Most professional trainers do a rigorous 15 minute warm-up. Thereby getting the muscles warmed up for the main thing. This is an important part of any exercise as it prevents any muscle tear or muscle pull. Warm-ups should be done before any exercise as it increases the blood flow to the working muscles thereby preventing muscle stiffness and increasing performance and lessens the risk of injury.

The Workout

Use your palms and space them apart greater than your shoulders are. Bring in your shoulders and hunch them up towards your neck so that the back muscle is engaged. Never use your momentum to pull your body up. This will decrease the efficiency of the workout. There are mainly four ways to workout using the pull-up bar.

  • Jumping Pull-Ups

This work out involves the shoulder and lower arm muscles. You have to grip the bar and jump up giving thrust downwards and then you have to control your descent with your muscles. Slowly lower yourself back down. Repeat this exercise according to your comfort ability level.

  • Classic Pull-Ups

This work out quite speaks for itself. You can for a narrow grip than a wider one as it is easier to pull one up. This workout places importance to your back muscles and lower arm muscles. It tests your muscles to the extreme.

  • The Monkey

The name is relatable to the exercise. You have to hang from the bar for 45 seconds. It is not easier than it sounds. Work your way towards a longer hold time. This exercise will strain your shoulder muscles.

  • One Armed Lift

This is the most difficult of the most. Be careful and take prepared cautions. With one arm gripping the bar you would have to lift yourself. Do the first one as long as you are comfortable with. Never overdo an exercise.

At the end of each exercise take a respite period of 30 seconds and as you progress you should decrease the respite time while increasing the reps slowly. This will have a positive effect and you will have bigger and flat back muscles which compliment your physique. Always be cautious. It is quite relevant that you perform the warm-ups before the intense exercise.

While doing pull-ups always try to really pull yourself up rather using the momentum as it will decrease the effect the exercise will have on your muscles. With that being said, always try to push the limit. Do the exercises daily and the results will be great.

Choose the Right Bar

Not everyone has the same physical structure. Therefore people desire different facility from the equipment. Some have bulky body, other are bodybuilders, all this results in difference in needs. There are many pull-up bars marketed by various manufacturers in the market. Choose your bar wisely. Some bars support up to 120 pounds whereas some support 200 pounds and 300 pounds respectively. Always buy the product from a reputed manufacturer, as this ensures quality and safety standards. Some bars have rubber grips, these results in slippage of palm from the bar as a result of formation of sweat in your palms. Avoid such products as they may increase the risk of injury. Go for foam padded grip; they conform to the contour of your palm and are a good absorbent.